Professor Vicki Clifton


Professorial Research Fellow and NHMRC Senior Research Fellow


Sex specific regulation of fetal-placental inflammation by glucocorticoids

Introduction: There are major sexually dimorphic differences in perinatal morbidity and mortality, yet when considering the health of a human pregnancy, the sex of the fetus is rarely noted. Compared to females, the male fetus is 20% more likely to experience and not survive most complications of pregnancy. Our research has focussed on the role of glucocorticoids in regulating sex specific differences in placental function and fetal growth in the presence of maternal asthma during pregnancy.

Results: In the human placenta, there are sex specific differences in the response to glucocorticoids especially if there is a complication during pregnancy such as maternal asthma. Specifically, in pregnancies complicated by maternal asthma both the male and female fetuses are exposed to higher circulating levels of glucocorticoids. However, only female fetuses reduced their size in response to maternal asthma while male fetuses continued to grow normally in the high glucocorticoid environment.  Cord blood cortisol was negatively correlated with female birthweight, placental cytokine mRNA expression and positively correlated with plasma IGF-BP-1 while there were no such correlations in males even though they were exposed to comparable concentrations of cortisol. Taken together, these data are consistent with the premise that males and females have different sensitivities to glucocorticoids and males appear to induce a state of glucocorticoid resistance that allows them to continue to grow normally in a high glucocorticoid and inflammatory environment. The mechanisms that confer this differential response to glucocorticoid are the focus of our current research. We have now identified a new and novel mechanism of how males and females attain different glucocorticoid sensitivities in pregnancies complicated by asthma. We have found that the human placental trophoblast expresses 12 different isoforms of GR which include known GR isoforms such as GRα A, GRβ, GRα C, GRP, GR A, and GRα D1-3. The data shows that GR isoform expression varies with cell type, cellular location, and by the presence of maternal asthma, growth restriction or fetal sex. From these findings, we identified that males may be glucocorticoid resistant in a high cortisol/inflammatory environment due to the dominant negative effects of GRβ. Females may be more sensitive to glucocorticoids through the co-expression of GRα A with GRα C and GRα-D3. These sex differences in GR expression contribute to significant differences in determining which inflammatory pathways are activated or repressed by glucocorticoids. In female foetuses of asthmatic mothers, the presence of GRα A with GRα C and GRα-D3 results in the upregulation of apoptosis and inflammation in the placenta relative to males and may be one reason why females are more likely to be reduced in size in the presence of maternal asthma.

Discussion: This work suggests that glucocorticoid regulation of inflammation is very complex and dependent on the GR isoform pattern of expression in each tissue. Understanding how changes in the GR proteomic profile between the sexes can drive differences in the regulation of the fetal-placental response to inflammation will contribute significantly to determining the mechanisms that influence sex differences in perinatal outcome.

About me

Professor Vicki Clifton is a National Health and Medical Research Council Senior Research Fellow and was employed at the Robinson Research Institute, School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health at the University of Adelaide (2008-2015) before moving to Brisbane.  In Adelaide she was appointed as the Director of Clinical Research at the Lyell McEwin Hospital in Adelaide (2009-2014) and her Pregnancy and Development group were based at this site with a research focus on the impact of social disadvantage on pregnancy and fetal growth. Prof Clifton did most of her training at the Mothers and Babies Research Centre in Newcastle, Australia (1991-2007) as a PhD student, postdoctoral fellow and Deputy Director of the Centre (2006-2007). However she also spent some time at the University of Toronto, Canada as a postdoctoral fellow (1995-1997). Prof Clifton is Editor of the Placenta Journal (2012-present) and her wider contributions are related to engagement in the development of guidelines for the treatment of asthma during pregnancy on both a national and international level. She has a background in reproductive endocrinology, immunology, asthma, fetal growth, and maternal and placental physiology. Her research has examined aspects of placental function which has evolved into an investigation of those factors that program fetal development and neonatal adaptation.


26        Clifton, V.L., Crompton, R., Read, M.A., Gibson, P.G., Smith, R. & Wright, I.M.R. (2005) Microvascular effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone in human skin vary in relation to estrogen concentration during the menstrual cycle. Journal of Endocrinology 186, 69-76.

27        Clifton, V.L., Vanderlelie, J. & Perkins, A.V. (2005) Increased anti-oxidant enzyme activity and biological oxidation in placentae of pregnancies complicated by maternal asthma. Placenta 26, 773-779.

28        Murphy, V.E., Gibson, P., Talbot, P.L. & Clifton, V.L. (2005) Severe asthma exacerbations during pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology 106, 1046-1054.

29        Murphy, V.E., Gibson, P.G., Smith, R. & Clifton, V.L. (2005) Asthma during pregnancy: mechanisms and treatment implications. Eur Respir J 25, 731-750.

30        Murphy, V.E., Gibson, P.G., Talbot, P.I., Kessell, C.G. & Clifton, V.L. (2005) Asthma self-management skills and the use of asthma education during pregnancy. Eur Respir J 26, 435-441.

31        Murphy, V.E., Johnson, R.F., Wang, Y.C., Akinsanya, K., Gibson, P.G., Smith, R. & Clifton, V.L. (2005) The effect of maternal asthma on placental and cord blood protein profiles. J Soc Gynecol Investig 12, 349-355.

32        Vanderlelie, J., Venardos, K., Clifton, V.L., Gude, N.M., Clarke, F.M. & Perkins, A.V. (2005) Increased biological oxidation and reduced anti-oxidant enzyme activity in pre-eclamptic placentae. Placenta 26, 53-58.

33        Clifton, V.L., Rennie, N. & Murphy, V.E. (2006) Effect of inhaled glucocorticoid treatment on placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity and neonatal birthweight in pregnancies complicated by asthma. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 46, 136-140.

34        Murphy, V.E., Clifton, V.L. & Gibson, P.G. (2006) Asthma exacerbations during pregnancy: incidence and association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Thorax 61, 169-176.

35        Murphy, V.E., Johnson, R.F., Wang, Y.C., Akinsanya, K., Gibson, P.G., Smith, R. & Clifton, V.L. (2006) Proteomic study of plasma proteins in pregnant women with asthma. Respirology 11, 41-48.

36        Osei-Kumah, A., Ammit, A.J., Smith, R., Ge, Q. & Clifton, V.L. (2006) Inflammatory mediator release in normal bronchial smooth muscle cells is altered by pregnant maternal and fetal plasma independent of asthma. Placenta 27, 847-852.

37        Stark, M.J., Dierkx, L., Clifton, V.L. & Wright, I.M. (2006) Alterations in the maternal peripheral microvascular response in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and the impact of fetal sex. J Soc Gynecol Investig 13, 573-578.

38        Stark, M.J., Wright, I.M.R. & Clifton, V.L. (2006) Maternal microvascular response to corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) is altered by gestation, fetal gender and pre-eclampsia. Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation 13, 131a-132a.

39        Wright, I.M.R., Clifton, V.L. & Stark, M.J. (2006) Characterisation of microvascular function in very preterm infants in the first week of life. Journal of Vascular Research 43, 89-89.

40        Zarzycki, P.K., Kulhanek, K.M., Smith, R. & Clifton, V.L. (2006) Determination of steroids in human plasma using temperature-dependent inclusion chromatography for metabolomic investigations. J Chromatogr A 1104, 203-208.

41        Clifton, V.L., Bisits, A. & Zarzycki, P.K. (2007) Characterization of human fetal cord blood steroid profiles in relation to fetal sex and mode of delivery using temperature-dependent inclusion chromatography and principal component analysis (PCA). J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 855, 249-254.

42        Hodyl, N.A., Krivanek, K.M., Lawrence, E., Clifton, V.L. & Hodgson, D.M. (2007) Prenatal exposure to a pro-inflammatory stimulus causes delays in the development of the innate immune response to LPS in the offspring. J Neuroimmunol 190, 61-71.

43        Hodyl, N.A., Walker, F.R., Krivanek, K.M., Clifton, V. & Hodgson, D.A. (2007) Modelling prenatal bacterial infection: Functional consequences of altered hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis development. Behavioural Brain Research 178, 108-114.

44        Murphy, V.E., Fittock, R.J., Zarzycki, P.K., Delahunty, M.M., Smith, R. & Clifton, V.L. (2007) Metabolism of synthetic steroids by the human placenta. Placenta 28, 39-46.

45        Tolosa, J.M., Schjenken, J.E., Civiti, T.D., Clifton, V.L. & Smith, R. (2007) Column-based method to simultaneously extract DNA, RNA, and proteins from the same sample. Biotechniques 43, 799-804.

46        Engel, P.J., Smith, R., Brinsmead, M.W., Bowe, S.J. & Clifton, V.L. (2008) Male sex and pre-existing diabetes are independent risk factors for stillbirth. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 48, 375-383.

47        Hodyl, N.A., Krivanek, M.M., Clifton, V.L. & Hodgson, D.M. (2008) Innate immune dysfunction in the neonatal rat following prenatal endotoxin exposure. Journal of Neuroimmunology 204, 126-130.

48        Johnson, R.F., Rennie, N., Murphy, V., Zakar, T., Clifton, V. & Smith, R. (2008) Expression of glucocorticoid receptor messenger ribonucleic acid transcripts in the human placenta at term. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93, 4887-4893.

49        Mayhew, T.M., Jenkins, H., Todd, B. & Clifton, V.L. (2008) Maternal asthma and placental morphometry: effects of severity, treatment and fetal sex. Placenta 29, 366-373.

50        Osei-Kumah, A., Smith, R. & Clifton, V.L. (2008) Maternal and cord plasma cytokine and chemokine profile in pregnancies complicated by asthma. Cytokine 43, 187-193.

51        Stark, M.J., Clifton, V.L. & Wright, I.M.R. (2008) Microvascular flow, clinical illness severity and cardiovascular function in the preterm infant. Archives of Disease in Childhood-Fetal and Neonatal Edition 93, F271-F274.

52        Stark, M.J., Clifton, V.L. & Wright, I.M.R. (2008) Sex-specific differences in peripheral microvascular blood flow in preterm infants. Pediatric Research 63, 415-419.

53        Clifton, V.L., Engel, P., Smith, R., Gibson, P., Brinsmead, M. & Giles, W.B. (2009) Maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancies complicated by asthma in an Australian population. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 49, 619-626.

54        Clifton, V.L., Hodyl, N.A., Murphy, V.E., Giles, W.B., Baxter, R.C. & Smith, R. (2009) Effect of maternal asthma, inhaled glucocorticoids and cigarette use during pregnancy on the newborn insulin-like growth factor axis. Growth Horm IGF Res 20, 39-48.

56        Scott, N.M., Hodyl, N.A., Murphy, V.E., Osei-Kumah, A., Wyper, H., Hodgson, D.M., Smith, R. & Clifton, V.L. (2009) Placental cytokine expression covaries with maternal asthma severity and fetal sex. J Immunol 182, 1411-1420.

57        Stark, M.J., Clifton, V.L. & Wright, I.M.R. (2009) Carbon Monoxide is a Significant Mediator of Cardiovascular Status Following Preterm Birth. Pediatrics 124, 277-284.

58        Stark, M.J., Clifton, V.L. & Wright, I.M.R. (2009) Neonates Born to Mothers With Preeclampsia Exhibit Sex-Specific Alterations in Microvascular Function. Pediatric Research 65, 291-295.

59        Stark, M.J., Wright, I.M.R. & Clifton, V.L. (2009) Sex-specific alterations in placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 activity and early postnatal clinical course following antenatal betamethasone. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 297, R510-R514.

60        Vu, T.T., Hirst, J.J., Stark, M., Wright, I.M.R., Palliser, H.K., Hody, N. & Clifton, V.L. (2009) Changes in human placental 5 alpha-reductase isoenzyme expression with advancing gestation: effects of fetal sex and glucocorticoid exposure. Reproduction Fertility and Development 21, 599-607.

61        Clifton, V.L. (2010) The influence of fetal sex on the fetal-placental adaptation to stressors. Journal of Reproductive Immunology 86, 12-13.

62        Clifton, V.L., Hodyl, N.A., Murphy, V.E., Giles, W.B., Baxter, R.C. & Smith, R. (2010) Effect of maternal asthma, inhaled glucocorticoids and cigarette use during pregnancy on the newborn insulin-like growth factor axis. Growth Hormone & Igf Research 20, 39-48.

63        Hodyl, N.A., Walker, F.R., Krivanek, K.M., Clifton, V.L. & Hodgson, D.M. (2010) Prenatal endotoxin exposure alters behavioural pain responses to lipopolysaccharide in adult offspring. Physiol Behav 100, 143-147.

64        Lash, G.E., Burton, G.J., Chamley, L.W., Clifton, V.L., Constancia, M., Crocker, I.P., Dantzer, V., Desoye, G., Drewlo, S., Hemmings, D.G., Hiendleder, S., Kalionis, B., Keelan, J.A., Kudo, Y., Lewis, R.M., Manuelpillai, U., Murthi, P., Natale, D., Pfarrer, C., Robertson, S., Saffery, R., Saito, S., Sferruzzi-Perri, A., Sobrevia, L., Waddell, B.J. & Roberts, C.T. (2010) IFPA Meeting 2009 Workshops Report. Placenta 31, S4-S20.

65        Murphy, V.E., Clifton, V.L. & Gibson, P.G. (2010) The effect of cigarette smoking on asthma control during exacerbations in pregnant women. Thorax 65, 739-744.

66        Osei-Kumah, A., Wark, P.A.B., Smith, R. & Clifton, V.L. (2010) Asthma during pregnancy alters immune cell profile and airway epithelial chemokine release. Inflammation Research 59, 349-358.

67        Zarzycki, P.K., Zarzycka, M.B., Slaczka, M.M. & Clifton, V.L. (2010) Acetonitrile, the polarity chameleon. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 397, 905-908.

68.       Hodyl NA, Wyper H, Osei-Kumah A, Scott N, Murphy VE, Gibson P, Smith R, Clifton VL. Sex-specific associations between cortisol and birth weight in pregnancies complicated by asthma are not due to differential glucocorticoid receptor expression. Thorax. 2010 Aug;65(8):677-83.

69        Hodyl NA, Stark MJ, Osei-Kumah A, Bowman M, Gibson P, Clifton VL. (2011) Fetal Glucocorticoid-regulated Pathways Are Not Affected by Inhaled Corticosteroid Use for Asthma during Pregnancy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Mar 15;183(6):716-22.

70.       Al-Khan A, Aye IL, Barsoum I, Borbely A, Cebral E, Cerchi G, Clifton VL, Collins S, Cotechini T, Davey A, Flores-Martin J, Fournier T, Franchi AM, Fretes RE, Graham CH, Godbole G, Hansson SR, Headley PL, Ibarra C, Jawerbaum A, Kemmerling U, Kudo Y, Lala PK, Lassance L, Lewis RM, Menkhorst E, Morris C, Nobuzane T, Ramos G, Rote N, Saffery R, Salafia C, Sarr D, Schneider H, Sibley C, Singh AT, Sivasubramaniyam TS, Soares MJ, Vaughan O, Zamudio S, Lash GE. (2011)  IFPA Meeting 2010 Workshops Report II: Placental pathology; trophoblast invasion; fetal sex; parasites and the placenta; decidua and embryonic or fetal loss; trophoblast differentiation and syncytialisation. Placenta. 2011 Mar;32 Suppl 2:S90-9. Epub 2011 Jan 13.

71.       Wynne O, Horvat JC, Osei-Kumah A, Smith R, Hansbro PM, Clifton VL, Hodgson DM. (2011) Early life infection alters adult BALB/c hippocampal gene expression in a sex specific manner. Stress. 2011;14(3):247-61.

72.       Wynne O, Horvat JC, Kim RY, Ong LK, Smith R, Hansbro PM, Clifton VL, Hodgson DM. (2011) Neonatal respiratory infection and adult re-infection: Effect on glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus in BALB/c mice. Brain Behav Immun. 25: 1214-22

73.       Scott NM, Hodyl NA, Osei-Kumah A, Stark MJ, Smith R, Clifton VL. (2011) The presence of maternal asthma during pregnancy suppresses the placental pro-inflammatory response to an immune challenge in vitro. Placenta. 32: 454-61

74.       Osei-Kumah A, Smith R, Jurisica I, Caniggia I, Clifton VL. (2011) Sex-specific differences in placental global gene expression in pregnancies complicated by asthma. Placenta. 32: 570-8

75        Zarzycki PK, Zarzycka MB, Clifton VL, Adamski J, Głód BK. (2011) Low-parachor solvents extraction and thermostated micro-thin-layer chromatography separation for fast screening and classification of spirulina from pharmaceutical formulations and food samples. J Chromatogr A. 2011 Aug 19;1218(33):5694-704. Epub 2011 Jun 22.

76        Stark MJ, Hodyl NA, Wright IM, Clifton V.(2011) The influence of sex and antenatal betamethasone exposure on vasoconstrictors and the preterm microvasculature. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 24:1215-20

77        Prescott SL, Tulic M, Osei-Kumah A, Richman T, Crook M, Martino D, Dunstan JA, Novakovic B, Saffery R, Clifton VL. (2011)  Reduced placental FOXP3 associated with subsequent infant allergic disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 128:886-887

78        Powell H, Murphy VE, Taylor DR, Hensley MJ, McCaffery K, Giles W, Clifton VL, Gibson PG. (2011) Management of asthma in pregnancy guided by measurement of fraction of exhaled nitric oxide: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2011 Sep 10;378(9795):983-90

79        Powell H, McCaffery K, Murphy VE, Hensley MJ, Clifton VL, Giles W, Gibson PG. (2011) Psychosocial outcomes are related to asthma control and quality of life in pregnant women with asthma. J Asthma. 2011 Dec;48(10):1032-40.

80.       McLernon PC, Wood LG, Murphy VE, Hodyl NA, Clifton VL. (2012) Circulating antioxidant profile of pregnant women with asthma. Clin Nutr. 31:99-107

81        McLernon PC, Wood LG, Murphy VE, Hodyl NA, Clifton VL. (2012) Fatty acid profile of pregnant women with asthma. European eJournal of Clinical Nutrition: 7:78-85

82        Stark MJ, Hodyl NA, Butler M, Clifton VL. (2012) Localisation and characterisation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) in the human preterm placenta. Placenta. 2012 Dec;33(12):1020-5.

83        Tolosa JM, Schjenken JE, Clifton VL, Vargas A, Barbeau B, Lowry P, Maiti K, Smith R. (2012) The endogenous retroviral envelope protein syncytin-1 inhibits LPS/PHA-stimulated cytokine responses in human blood and is sorted into placental exosomes. Placenta. 2012 Nov;33(11):933-41.

84        Wynne O, Horvat JC, Smith R, Hansbro PM, Clifton VL, Hodgson DM. (2012) Effect of neonatal respiratory infection on adult BALB/c hippocampal glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors. Dev Psychobiol. 2012 Jul;54(5):568-75. doi: 10.1002/dev.20615. Epub 2011 Oct 17

85        Zouikr, I., Tadros, M.A., Clifton, V.L., Beagley, K.W., Hodgson, D.M. (2013) Low Formalin concentrations induce response that are sex and age dependent: a developmental study PLOS One: 8: e53384.

86        H. Powell, K McCaffery, V E Murphy, MJ Hensley, VL Clifton, W Giles, P G Gibson (2013) Psychosocial variables are related to future exacerbation risk and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with asthma. J Asthma;50(4):383-9

87        Clifton Vl, Hodyl, N.A. Fogarty,P.A., Torpy, D., Roberts, R., Nettelbeck, T. Ma, G. and Hetzel, B (2013) The impact of iodine supplementation and bread fortification in a mildly iodine deficient population of pregnant women in South Australia. Nutrition Journal 12: 32-

88. Hodyl NA, Stark MJ, Butler M, Clifton VL. (2013) Placental P-glycoprotein is unaffected by timing of antenatal glucocorticoid therapy but reduced in SGA preterm infants. Placenta. 2013 Apr;34(4):325-30.

89. Stark MJ, Clifton VL, Hodyl NA. (2013) Differential effects of docosahexaenoic acid on preterm and term placental pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Reproduction. 2013 Jul 31;146(3):243-51.

90. Abumaree MH, Alahari S, Albrecht C, Aye IL, Bainbridge S, Chauvin S, Clifton VL, Desoye G, Ermini L, Giuffrida D, Graham CH, Huang QT, Kalionis B, Lager S, Leach L, Li Y, Litvack ML, Nuzzo AM, Moretto-Zita M, O'Tierney-Ginn P, Powell T, Rolfo A, Salomon C, Serov A, Westwood M, Yung HW, Lash GE.  (2013) IFPA Meeting 2013 Workshop Report I: Diabetes in pregnancy, maternal dyslipidemia in pregnancy, oxygen in placental development, stem cells and pregnancy pathology. Placenta. 2013 Dec 1. pii: S0143-4004(13)00830-8.

91. Rodger D, Skuse A, Wilmore M, Humphreys S, Dalton J, Flabouris M, Clifton VL. (2013) Pregnant women's use of information and communications technologies to access pregnancy-related health information in South Australia. Aust J Prim Health. 2013;19(4):308-12. doi: 10.1071/PY13029.

92. Bain E, Pierides KL, Middleton P, Clifton VL, Hodyl NA, Stark MJ, Crowther CA. Interventions for managing asthma in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Protocol) 2013

93. Hodyl NA, Stark MJ, Scheil W, Grzeskowiak LE, Clifton VL  (2014) Perinatal outcomes following maternal asthma and cigarette smoking during pregnancy.. Eur Respir J. 2014 Mar;43(3):704-16.

94. Wooldridge AL, Bischof RJ, Meeusen EN, Liu H, Heinemann GK, Hunter DS, Giles LC, Kind KL, Owens JA, Clifton VL, Gatford KL.  (2014) Placental restriction of fetal growth reduces cutaneous responses to antigen after sensitization in sheep. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2014 Apr 1;306(7):R441-6.

95. Grzeskowiak LE, Dekker G, Rivers K, Roberts-Thomson K, Roy A, Smith B, Bowden J, Bryce R, Davies M, Beilby J, Wilson A, Middleton P, Ruffin R, Karnon J, Clifton VL; AAMS study group.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. (2014)  A randomized controlled trial to assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of a nurse-led Antenatal Asthma Management Service in South Australia (AAMS study). 2014 Jan 8;14(1):9. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-14-9.

96. Hodyl NA, Grzeskowiak LE, Stark MJ, Scheil W, Clifton VL.  (2014) The impact of Aboriginal status, cigarette smoking and smoking cessation on perinatal outcomes in South Australia. Med J Aust. 2014 Sep 1;201(5):274-8.

97. Tucker J, Clifton V, Wilson A. (2014) Teetering near the edge; women's experiences of anal incontinence following obstetric anal sphincter injury: an interpretive phenomenological research study. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2014 Aug;54(4):377-81. doi: 10.1111/ajo.12230.

98. Dalton JA, Rodger DL, Wilmore M, Skuse AJ, Humphreys S, Flabouris M, Clifton VL.  (2014) "Who's afraid?": Attitudes of midwives to the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for delivery of pregnancy-related health information. Women Birth. 2014 Sep;27(3):168-73. doi: 10.1016/j.wombi.2014.06.010. Epub 2014 Jul 26.

99. Wilmore M, Rodger D, Humphreys S, Clifton VL, Dalton J, Flabouris M, Skuse A. (2014) How midwives tailor health information used in antenatal care. Midwifery. 2014 Jun 23. pii: S0266-6138(14)00172-7.

100. Sadovsky Y, Clifton VL, Burton GJ.  (2014) Invigorating placental research through the "Human Placenta Project". Placenta. 2014 Aug;35(8):527.

101. Zouikr I, James MH, Campbell EJ, Clifton VL, Beagley KW, Dayas CV, Hodgson DM  (2014) Altered formalin-induced pain and Fos induction in the periaqueductal grey of preadolescent rats following neonatal LPS exposure.. PLoS One. 2014 May 30;9(5):e98382. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098382. eCollection 2014.

102. Grieger JA, Grzeskowiak LE, Clifton VL  (2014) Preconception dietary patterns in human pregnancies are associated with preterm delivery.. J Nutr. 2014 Jul;144(7):1075-80.

103. Grieger JA, Wood LG, Clifton VL.  (2014) Antioxidant-rich dietary intervention for improving asthma control in pregnancies complicated by asthma: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2014 Apr 4;15:108.

104. Saif Z, Hodyl NA, Hobbs E, Tuck AR, Butler MS, Osei-Kumah A, Clifton VL. (2014) The human placenta expresses multiple glucocorticoid receptor isoforms that are altered by fetal sex, growth restriction and maternal asthma. Placenta. 2014 Apr;35(4):260-8.

105. Dyson RM, Palliser HK, Lakkundi A, de Waal K, Latter JL, Clifton VL, Wright IM. (2014) Early microvascular changes in the preterm neonate: a comparative study of the human and guinea pig. Physiol Rep. 2014 Sep 17;2(9). pii: e12145. doi: 10.14814/phy2.12145

106. Tucker J, Clifton V, Wilson A. (2014) Teetering near the edge; women's experiences of anal incontinence following obstetric anal sphincter injury: an interpretive phenomenological research study. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2014 Aug;54(4):377-81. doi: 10.1111/ajo.12230.

107. Zouikr I, Tadros MA, Barouei J, Beagley KW, Clifton VL, Callister RJ, Hodgson DM. (2014) Altered nociceptive, endocrine, and dorsal horn neuron responses in rats following a neonatal immune challenge. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014 Mar;41:1-12.

108. Zouikr I, Ahmed AF, Horvat JC, Beagley KW, Clifton VL, Ray A, Thorne RF, Jarnicki AG, Hansbro PM, Hodgson DM. (2015) Programming of formalin-induced nociception by neonatal LPS exposure: Maintenance by peripheral and central neuroimmune activity. Brain Behav Immun. 2015 Feb;44:235-46. Epub 2014 Oct 31.


Research fields

pregnancy, placenta, fetus, maternal asthma